indian jewelry
                  Cherokee History


                  Cherokee Indian jewelry, as well as every
                  other aspect of their culture was deeply
                  affected by the Indian Removal of 1838
                  and 1839.





                  After much legal wrangling, President
                  Jackson ordered troops to enter the Cherokee lands in Tennessee, North and South Carolina, and Alabama to
                  remove the Cherokee Indians from their homeland.

                  The United States Army in 1838 and 1839 removed the Cherokee Indians people by force, with the exception of
                  a few hundred who hid in the mountains of North Carolina-where their descendants still live.

                  The Cherokee Indian, having resisted longest, suffered most in the process of removal, nearly one-fourth of their
                  entire population dying on the way. An effort was made to include the Seminole of Florida in the general removal
                  from the Southeast- this brought on war, which lasted until 1842 and cost the lives of 1,500 American troops and
                  20,000,000 in military expenses. Its most publicized feature was the capture of the young Seminole chief
                  Osceola by the American General T. S. Jesup.

                  When the much-wanted Cherokee Chief Osceola at last set up a conference under a flag of truce, General Jesup
                  sent an officer to the appointed place, seven or eight miles from St. Augustine, and while the conference was
                  going on had the conference ground quietly surrounded by a body of troops, who at a signal made Osceola and his
                  followers prisoners.

                  This means of capturing prisoners was used repeatedly by General Jesup against the Seminoles-once with the
                  inadvertent help of a well-intentioned Cherokee Indian peace delegation. The shocked Cherokee Indian chief John
                  Ross wrote to the Secretary of War, "1 do hereby most solemnly protest against this unprecedented violation of
                  that sacred rule ... of treating with all due respect those who had ever presented themselves under a flag of
                  truce." But, unfortunately, it was the only means that worked.

                  Wrote General Jesup, "No Seminole proves false to his country, nor has a single instance ever occurred of a
                  first rate warrior having surrendered." Osceola was captured and died in a military prison three months after his
                  capture. But the war went on.

                  Seminole women (as some of the women of the Creek resistance had done) killed their small children to free
                  themselves to fight beside their men, and the war developed into a game of hide-and-seek in the swamps of the
                  Florida Everglades; obviously it could never be won by either side.

                  Peace was finally made on quite honorable terms worked out by Army Colonel Ethan Allen Hitchcock, who during
                  the war wrote, "Five years ago I came [to Florida] as a volunteer, willingly making every effort in my power to be
                  of service in punishing as I thought, the Indians. I now come, with the persuasion that the Indians have been
                  wronged .... "

                  Most of the Seminole moved west to Indian Territory but several bands remained in the region of the Everglades
                  and are still there, having resisted, down through the decades, inducements to emigrate such as have seldom been
                  offered to any other tribe.

                  Cherokee Indians who had made possible the Horseshoe Bend victory that had launched General Jackson's
                  national career, came off no better in the removal than the ancient hostiles. Ex-hostiles such as Menewa, who
                  had become steadfast American allies (Menewa adopted the army uniform of an American general), fared no
                  better than the implacable anti Americans who remained implacable.

                  Those who believe that Indians don't cry haven't looked over the official reports of the Great Removal. They are
                  still crying about the loss of their homeland.

                  So, the Indian nations were gone from their warm and charming land in the Southeast. But something more had
                  happened than the mere uprooting of 50,000 or so people from their homes.

                  The frontier spirit had clearly paraded the black horse of its evils coupled to the white horse of its virtues.
                  Natural resources-in this case, people had been merrily exploited in an open conspiracy involving the President of
                  the United States and large portions of the population.

                  Young America, in short, had been told a most effective bedtime story of crime without punishment. The nation,
                  in short, had been exposed to quite a spectacle of dirty business, and it is reasonable to suppose the sinuous
                  folds of the young American mind had picked up a new wrinkle or two.

                  The Cherokee Indian resilience helped them to rebuild a new homeland in Indian Territory, now part of Oklahoma.
                  They built schools, homes, churches, a new Cherokee Indian government, but they still remember the "Trail of
                  Tears." Copyright 2010

                  References
                  Conley, R. J. The Cherokee Nation: A History. 2008.
                  Ehle, J. Trail of Tears: The Rise and Fall of the Cherokee Nation. 1997.
                  Finger, J. R. Eastern Band Of Cherokees: 1819-1900.1984.
                  Re-enactment of the "Trail of
                  Tears" by the Cherokee